Regenerative medicine is an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration and can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. It concerns the development of tools for the repair or regeneration of damaged tissues 


Stem cells have emerged as a key element of regenerative medicine therapies due to their inherent ability to differentiate into a variety of cell phenotypes, thereby providing numerous potential cell therapies to treat an array of degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. A recent paradigm shift has emerged suggesting that the beneficial effects of stem cells may not be restricted to cell restoration alone, but also due to their transient paracrine actions.